NOTE: This article describes an interactive challenge that was done in realtime at the time it was published. You can still make use of it by starting from the initial version of the code, but if you’d rather skip to the end results, be sure to read Issue 3.4.

A programming language that is endlessly flexible but difficult to use because of its lack of support for common operations is known as a Turing tarpit. While a range of esoteric programming languages fall under this category, the Brainfuck language is one that stands out for its extreme minimalism.

Brainfuck manages to be Turing complete in only 8 operations, which means that despite being functionally equivalent to Ruby in a theoretical sense, it offers virtually none of the conveniences that a modern programmer has come to expect. You don’t need to go any farther than its “Hello World” program to see that it isn’t a language that any sane person would want to work in:


However, the simplicity of the language is not without at least some merit. A consequence of having a somewhat trivial to parse syntax and very basic semantics is that while Brainfuck may be one of the hardest languages to use, it simultaneously happens to be one of the easiest languages to implement. While it’s not quite as easy a task as working on a code kata, it takes roughly the same order of magnitude of effort to produce a fully functioning Brainfuck interpreter. The key difference is that you end up with some software that is much deeper than your average bowling score calculator after you’ve completed the exercise.

A functioning Brainfuck interpreter is complex enough where you can begin to ask serious questions about code quality and overall design. It is also something that you can build new functionality on top of in a ton of interesting ways. So in this exercise, the real payoff comes after you’ve run your first “Hello World” example and have a working interpreter to play with. The downside is that it might take you a day or two of work to get to that point, and after all that effort, you might need to think about doing something that’s just a bit more meaningful with your life. But like most things that involve this sort of drudgery, being a Practicing Ruby subscriber can help you skip the boring stuff and get right to the juicy parts.

Rather than a typical article, this issue is instead an interactive challenge for our readers to try at home. I’ve posted a simple and functional Brainfuck interpreter on GitHub, and I’m inviting all of you to look for ways of improving it. The code itself is good in places and not so good in others, and I’ve intentionally left in some things that can be improved. Your challenge, if you choose to accept it, is as follows:

  • If you spot things in the code that can be improved, let me know!
  • If you spot a bug, file a bug report via github issues and optionally send a pull request that includes a failing test.
  • If you have time to make a refactoring or improvement yourself, fork the project and submit pull requests
  • If you want to add documentation patches, those are welcome too!
  • Feel free to work on this with friends and colleagues, even if they aren’t Practicing Ruby subscribers.

In Issue 3.4, I will go over the improvements we made to this project as a group, and discuss why they’re worthwhile. Because I know there are several things that need improvement in this code that are pretty general in nature, I’m reasonably sure that article will be a generally interesting discussion on software design and Ruby idioms, as opposed to a collection of esoterica. But since I don’t know what to expect from your contributions, the exact contents will be a surprise even to me.